The wolf and coyote shifters (and presumably other possible canines) display many of the same abilities and traits, and conform to the same set of supernatural rules.
Birth and Creation
A werewolf, or coyote, can be born to parents who are one of either species. However, it's known that not all offspring of a shapeshifter will inherit their supernatural genes.
Normally, the bitten human will transform into the same species as his alpha sire.
Society, Culture and Rank
Like humans and natural canine animals, werewolves and werecoyotes are social beings. The actual wolf runs in a pack. The canine shapeshifters are featured as mystically symbiotic creatures. They have an instinctive kinship with their own. They feel naturally attuned, drawn and sensitive towards, and stimulated or empowered by their own species.
Due to this preternatural social instinct, these shifters naturally organize themselves into and live in packs. The leaders of a pack are the alphas, with the followers being the betas. They commonly form, or join, packs not only because of strength in numbers, but because their power and skill improves. They become more mature in using their abilities, more powerful or more balanced.
The basic structure of a pack requires a single alpha and a minimum of three betas, as displayed by Derek's pack. As demonstrated by the Alpha Pack seen in Season 3, a pack can also be comprised of only alphas, with one overall leader and all the others fulfilling the roles of followers.
This supernatural social relation can also apply to members of other species. A True Alpha, Scott McCall's unique pack comprised of inter-species friends, are shown to function similarly to the basic concept of a Pack. Due to the strong bonds of friendship between each member, their abilities and supernatural traits can be affected, even boosted by Scott's Roar.
Shapeshifters whom are not part of a Pack, who have no alpha or beta to support them are called omegas. A known consequence of this rank is they can be left weaker and vulnerable.
Canine Eye Color
There are three general mystical eye colors for a werewolf or a coyote: bright gold, steel blue and red. Their rank and power are also reflected by how brightly their eye color shine.
Every canine shapeshifter, born or bitten, starts with the gold eyes. After being bitten by Peter Hale, Scott McCall's eyes as a werewolf were gold until he rose to alpha status. Other werewolves with gold eyes include Isaac Lahey, Liam Dunbar and Hayden Romero all of whom were also bitten. Cora Hale, a hereditary werewolf, has gold eyes.
The eyes will change from gold to blue after one takes an innocent human life. Derek Hale's eyes changed from gold to blue when he gave his girlfriend, Paige a mercy-killing. Peter, Corrine, the twins and Sebastien Valet all have blue eyes due to being spree killers, Malia Tate from her accidentally killing her adoptive family and Jackson Whittemore sports blue eyes because of his time as a kanima. After Derek Hale descends back to beta rank in Alpha Pact his eyes changed from an alpha's red back to steel blue.
If a shapeshifter with blue eyes were to be losing their power, their eyes will change back to gold as in Derek's case in 117.
A werecreature with red eyes is an alpha. When one rises to Alpha status, their eye color, gold or blue, will change to red. Derek's blue eyes changed to red after killing a living alpha, his uncle Peter. Scott McCall gains an alpha's red eyes when he becomes a True Alpha. In Alpha Pact, we see that if a werewolf loses alpha status, they lose the red eyes.
The hearing of a supernatural creature is far more acute than that of a human's both in frequency range and distance.
A shapeshifter individual will be able to listen to conversations, and pick up sounds several yards away from their position, they can hear through walls, and track movement. Beings seen to possess hearing include the werewolf, the werecoyote and the kanima.
Normally when they discover this ability, one will feel simply uncomfortable, just picking up the most random sounds in their vicinity and in some cases be overwhelmed by all the different noises.
Eventually when they learn to control and mask this talent, they can simply hone in and listen to one single sound they'd like. Using their hearing, one will be able to search an area, or a crowd of voices to discern a particular object of their interest. One downside of this concentration is that one will be harmed by a loud sound just close to the individual.
Because they can hear someone's heart, a being with supernatural hearing will be able to discern when one could be lying because of the jump in said person's heartbeat that bolsters the deception.
Another supernatural with a related sense of enhanced hearing is the banshee, which ''hears'' on a frequency only they can receive.
A supernatural sense of smell seems to be as more keen by an order of magnitude, similar to a dog. Canine shapeshifters can track individuals via their scent, much like a bloodhound, and so they are effective trackers. They can also smell illness.
Their sense of smell can be so refined they are able to detect emotions - anger or fear. They do this by picking up chemosignals - chemical signals that communicate emotion, which an individual can give off via their scent, allowing them to identify the hormonal changes that person exhibits, or has exhibited at specific locations in the past.
There are both internal and external changes to the eyes of a supernatural creature. Initially, the eyes will glow in response to emotion. Supernaturals will often identify themselves by flashing their eye color.
A supernatural creature with enhanced vision will more acute than a human's, and in more ways than one, including binocular vision or infrared. Said beings with a supernatural eyesight will possess glowing eyes that is reflective of their species.
Also, supernatural eyesight will reflect the light like eyeshine. Because of this, photographing, or filming such a person with an enhanced eyesight will be rather difficult, unless the being knows how to mask their vision.
Shapeshifters, or were-creatures such as canines, the werewolf, or the feline werejaguar will have night vision like most predators, being able to see well in low light as well as binocular vision. While provoked into a state of aggression, or in a state of bloodlust, a were-creature's vision will be internally depicted as red.
Due to being were-creatures, werewolves can have an effect towards, and in regards to, animals.
In Wolf Moon, Scott McCall, due to being recently Bitten, entered the cats' room of the animal clinic where he worked, and suddenly the cats began snarling and hissing in the manner as if he were an irregular animal intruder.
Later on, when an injured dog was barking and snapping at Scott and Allison Argent out of fright, because of her broken leg. Scott at once stepped forward seeing if he could calm her down. Right after, as if on instinct, his werewolf eyes flashed and the dog immediately became submissive, and Scott wasn't even aware of, nor had any conscious control over, his werewolf status at that point.
When Allison was changing in a separate room of the clinic, Scott saw her take off her top baring her back, to his excitement. The dog looked at Scott, as if she was sensing Scott's libido hormonal change towards Allison. Scott gave the dog a bashful expression saying "What? I didn't see anything."
Through his continued work at the clinic Scott no longer invokes irregular reactions from animal patients, presumably because he understood enough of his wolf status to mask himself from animals.
In Wolf's Bane, Derek was being pursued by two police dogs. He scared them off by roaring them into submission.
In Wolf Moon, Scott McCall had a large gash from Peter Hale's Bite. A day later, he took off the bandage, and saw the wound had healed completely with no mark or scaring visible. He'd been later pegged to a tree by an arrow, but after it was removed, the wound healed overnight. He also noted he no longer suffered from his lifelong asthma.
In Heart Monitor, Derek Hale was clawed through the back by Peter Hale, thrown against a wall and knocked unconscious. Because this wound came from an Alpha, Derek was out of commision for days.
Scott wasn't healing from a wound in Frayed, beacuse of somataphormises; he was feeling depressed and guilty over Derek's supposed death. After Allison stitched him up, he apparently healed after he "believed" it healed.
In Restraint, Erica Reyes was struck with kanima venom which disabled her healing, and she had an epileptic seizure. Similarly, in Required Reading, after Scott reads Valack's subliminally coded novel, it's effects meddle with his healing and his asthma psychosomatically returns.
Werewolves can subconsiously trigger their healing by causing themselves pain.
Like their senses and transformations werewolves can presumably develop control over their healing.
In Wolf's Bane, one half of Peter's face remained burned from his six-year coma due to the Hale fire. Once he recovered, it's hinted he consciously kept his face burned so to keep up the ruse he was comatose, and in Wolf's Bane he apparently healed his facial burns.
A werewolf's healing can be hindered, and subsequently they will excrete, or vomit up black coloured blood. This is possible were they to be poisoned by wolfsbane like Derek in Magic Bullet, or Cora Hale by mistletoe.
In Unleashed, Derek was impaled through the torso with a pipe for a long time, delaying with the healing process, causing him to vomit the black substance as well as it bleeding out through the wound.
Werewolves are able to siphon off pain of another living creature through touch. They absorb the pain, alleviate it, causing them some discomfort, but on a level out of scale with the amount of pain dissipating from the recipient.
It hurts the werewolf less than it hurts the person they're helping. On the negative side, if the werewolf takes too much pain away, the assorted bouts of pain could very well kill him.
In the natural world, in wolf packs, when a member of the pack is injured the other members will never abandon him. They regurgitate food into his mouth, they care for him, groom him in order to comfort and alleviate the injured member's pain. A werewolf's pain siphon appears significantly relevant to this phenomenon.
In Ouroboros, Liam Dunbar attempted to use his pain siphon for the first time on Hayden Romero, but failed. Later when he and Hayden share a sweet moment, they kiss, and Liam's pain siphon works then. This indicates werewolves can't just think about taking the pain for an individual to activate it, they have to have a degree of empathy for the individuals they're helping.
When Scott McCall discovered his werewolf powers after being bitten in Season 1, he noticed his strength was greatly enhanced. He once threw a lacrosse ball so hard it broke right through a goalie's mesh net. Also he once hit his head against a wall out of stress causing some tiles to shatter with Scott suffering no damage to his skull.
Derek Hale is born a werewolf and more capable. Thus, he is much stronger than Scott physically, allowing him to overpower the younger, newer wolf.
The senior members of the Alpha Pack, Deucalion, Kali and Ennis each had tremendous strength, far superior to any other werewolf. Their overwhelming strength came from their having killed their previous packs to absorb their power and from being in a pack made up of multiple alphas.
Deucalion, the Demon Wolf, exhibited the greatest display of super-strength. He was able to overpower both Jennifer Blake, the Darach, and Derek simultaneously.
Upon being bitten by Peter Hale, Scott discovered his greatly enhanced speed. While playing goalie in lacrosse, he was able to catch every shot feeling like he had "all the time in the world". On the field, he's faster than all the other players on the field and evades them like he's dancing, displaying acrobatics while jumping over three opposing players.
Deucalion and Satomi Ito have exhibited and utilized massive speed to great effect. Deucalion appeared as a blur when he dashed from restraining Jennifer Blake over to Scott's side in Lunar Ellipse. Satomi was able to evade gunfire while facing off against an assassin in Weaponized.